Yak production in central Asian highlands

Proceedings of the third international congress on yak held in Lhasa, P.R. China, 4–9 September 2000


H. Jianlin, C. Richard, O. Hanotte, C. McVeigh and J.E.O. Rege

Tibeatan Academy of Agriculture and Animal Sciences
Lhasa 850000, Tibet, P.R. China

International Yak Information Centre
Gansu Agricultural University
Lanzhou 730070, Gansu, P.R. China

International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development
GPO 3226, Kathamandu, Nepal

Yak and Camel Foundation of Germany
P.O. Box 10, D-25359 Krempe, Federal Republic of Germany

Yak Congress

International Livestock Research Institute
Nairobi, Kenya

© 2002 ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute)

All rights reserved. Parts of this publication may be reproduced for non-commercial use provided that such reproduction shall be subject to acknowledgment of ILRI as holder of copyright.

ISBN 92–9146–102–0

Correct citation: Jianlin H., Richard C., Hanotte O., McVeigh C. and Rege J.E.O. (eds). 2002. Yak production in central Asian highlands. Proceedings of the third international congress on yak held in Lhasa, P.R. China, 4–9 September 2000. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya. 572 pp.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents


Special session

Towards a global approach to the study of yak research and development
C. Jest and J. Bonnemaire

The potential for rangeland development in yak-rearing areas of the Tibetan Plateau
C. Richard

Session I: Rangeland development

Climatic and grazing controls on vegetative aboveground biomass: Implications for the rangelands on the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau
J. Klein, Zh. Xinquan and J. Harte

Yak grazing and forest dynamics in Sagarmatha National Park, Nepal
B. Brower and A. Dennis

Integrated ecological studies of pasture problems in the Tibetan Autonomous Region, P.R. China
W. Holzner, M. Kriechbaum, C. Ramble and H. Diemberger

Development dynamics of fragile pastoral systems of the south-eastern Tibetan Plateau
B. Weikai, W. Ning and L. Zhaoguang

The yak population in Mongolia and its relation with snow leopards as a prey species
B. Lhagvasuren and B. Munkhtsog

Recent results of yak research in Western High Asia
H. Kreutzmann

The cultural ecology of yak production in Dolpo, West Nepal
K. Bauer

Yak pastoralism in Pakistan
G. Rasool, B.A. Khan and A.W. Jasra

Grazing resources for yak production systems in Bhutan
W. Roder

Pastoral management and yak rearing in Manang's Nar-Phu valley
G. Gurung and C. McVeigh

A probe into the pastoral production system in Hongyuan, eastern Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau
Y. Zhaoli, L. Guangrong and W. Ning

Nomadism: A socio-ecological mode of culture
R. Merkle

Economics of yak farming with relation to tourism in Nepal
B.K.P. Shaha

The economic comparison on yak production in two types of cold season grassland in Tianzhu, China
P. Xiaopen, Zh. Degang, X. Changlin and Ch. Jiangang

Yak hybridisation in the central upper slope region of Nepal: A community resource management strategy
S.L. Pradhan, D.K. Hitchcock and D. Miller

Current rangeland management in Zhongdian County, Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan, P.R. China
X. Hongyan, C. Richard, X. Jianchu and W. Jianhua

Sustainable development of rangeland resources on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, P.R. China
L. Yingchun and Zh. Qingping

Production and use of an illustrated handbook for sheep and yak herders in Qinghai
N.M. van Wageningen and S. Wenjun

Session II: Genetic diversity

Genetic variation of mitochondrial DNA within domestic yak populations
J.F. Bailey, B. Healy, H. Jianlin, L. Sherchand, S.L. Pradhan, T. Tsendsuren, J.M. Foggin, C. Gaillard, D. Steane, I. Zakharov  and D.G. Bradley

Low level of cattle introgression in yak populations from Bhutan and China: Evidences from Y-specific microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA markers
H. Jianlin, J.W. Ochieng, J.E.O. Rege and O. Hanotte

Genetic diversity in Bhutanese yak (Bos grunniens) populations using microsatellite markers
T. Dorji, M. Goddard, J. Perkins, N. Robinson and W. Roder

Introgression makes yak populations genetically different: Evidence from Beta-lactoglobulin variations
Q. Xuebin and H. Jianlin

Milk protein genetic polymorphisms: A comparison between Maiwa yak and Jiulong yak
Zh. Yucai, Zh. Guanghui, M. Yongjiang, P. Xianwen, J. Mingfeng, W. Yong, Z. Sixiang and Ch. Jie

Population genetic variations of haemoglobin in yak, cattle and their hybrids
T. Shixin and H. Jianlin

Genetic variants at the H subunit of the lactate dehydrogenase protein in milk of Maiwa and Jiulong yak
M. Yongjiang, Zh. Yucai, Zh. Guanghui, P. Xianwen, J. Mingfeng

Cloning and sequencing of 5'-flanking region of kappa-casein gene in yak
F. Boaliong, L. Ning, Zh. Xinbo, and W. Changxin

Opportunities for the improvement of yak production with particular reference to genetic options
G. Wiener and S.C. Bishop

Session III: Nutrition and feeds

Advances in yak nutrition research
H. Linghao, L. Shujie and Ch. Shatuo

Urea enriched finger millet (Elensine coracana) straw: Effect of feeding on yak
R.N. Pal, S. Pattanaik and T.K. Mohanty

Peptide and amino acid metabolism in the gastro-intestinal tract of yak
H. Xingtai, X. Bai, D. Jizeng and H. Linghao

Grass and legume variety trials in eastern Tibet
W.E. Limbach, L. Yingchun and M. Yushou

Availability and utilisation of shrubs as protein sources for yak grazing on alpine meadow on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, P.R. China
D. Shikui, L. Ruijun, P. Xiaopeng and H. Zizhi

Seasonal changes in forage nutrients and mineral contents in water resources, forage and yak blood
Y. Ping, Zh. Dejuan, X. Xishan, P. Heping and Ch. Shengli

Utilisation of alpine shrubs in yak farming in Qilian mountain regions
G. Yanjun, L. Ruijun, Zh. Degang and Ch. Jiangang

Session IV: Reproduction and breeding

Monitoring of traits for yak and yak hybrids
M.R. Goe and G. Stranzinger

Resources of yak production in Tibet and reasons for the degeneration of productive performances
J. Qiumei, B. Chong, D. Yongla, T. Degyi, D. Chyegi, Zh. Yongqing and L. Sang

Analyses of breeding traits in Maiwa yak
Zh. Jincheng, Ch. Zhihua, Z. Xiangdong and W. Yongli

Some genetic parameters of body weight in yak of the Buryat ecotype
E. Katzina

Preliminary results of selection and breeding for improved yak production in Linzhou County, Tibetan Autonomous Region, P.R. China
Y. Den

Possibility of increasing yak number and productive efficiency in Kyrgyzstan
B. Chertkov and M. Kasmaliev

Review of the research and development of Bayingolin yak in Xinjiang, P.R. China
T. Abudula, L. Hongyun, Zh. Changrui and Ch. Jingbo

A study on the improvement of yak reproductive performance by introducing wild yak blood
Y. Shoudong

Present situation and suggestions of yak improvement in Sichuan Province, P.R. China
F. Changxiu, W. Jianwen and P. Jiabi

Heifer Project International's yak project and some proposals for the improvement of the yak industry in Sichuan Province
P. Jiabi, Sh. Yongjie and G. Jiyun

Yak production and strategy for its further development in Naqu Prefecture of Tibet, P.R. China
Y. Xuqing

Efficient production of transgenic bovine/cat by microinjection and cloning technology of early embryos
T. Suzuki

Report on experiment of artificial insemination by frozen yak semen in an area with altitude of 4500 masl
T. Dorji

Experimental results of oestrus synchronisation in yak
M. Davaa, D. Badamdorj, B. Erdenebaatar, A. Magash, Y. Zagdsuren and N. Altankhuag

Experiment on oestrous synchronisation for artificial insemination with frozen semen in yak
Zh. Yun

Preliminary experiment to induce superovulation in yak
M. Davaa, N. Altankhuag, Y. Zagdsuren, D. Badamdorj, A. Magash and B. Erdenebaatar

Light microscopic investigations of frozen-thawed yak semen—A pilot study
S. Nagy, Q. Xuebin, H. Jianlin and A. Kovács

Experiments on sexing yak spermatozoa by fluorescence in situ hybridisation using bovine Y-chromosome specific DNA probe
R. Tamás, Q. Xuebin, P.T. Erika, N. Szabolcs, H. Jianlin, K. András, T. András and S. András

Artificial insemination trial in yak in Bhutan
L. Tshering, D.B. Rai, M.R. Gurung and Chungsila

Fertility of Mongolian female yak inseminated with frozen semen of wild yak
D. Badamdorj, M. Davaa, B. Erdenebaatar, B. Dagviikhorol, L. Batsuuri, J. Gombojaw and B. Amarsanaa

Use of herbal medicine for anoestrus management in yak (Poephagus grunniens L.)
T.K. Mohanty, R.N. Pal, K.V.H. Sastry and B.P. Singh

Session V: Environment and physiology

Adaptation of yak to non-typical environments: A preliminary survey of yak in North America
G. Wiener

Endocrine changes and their relationships with bodyweight of growing yak
G. Wiener

Physiological responses of yak under different environments
M. Sarkar, B.C. Das, D.B. Mondal and A. Chatterjee

Productivity of yak in southern Qinghai Province
X. Xiaolin, Y. Rongzhen, X. Jington, L. Quan and W. Yaping

Ecological and physio-biochemical parameters of yak in highland conditions of Kyrgyzstan
M. Asylbekov, S. Abdukaimov and J. Tynaev

Insulin, prolactin and growth hormone concentrations in yak colostrum and milk
Zh. Yucai, Z. Sixiang, Zh. Guanghui, Ch. Weihua, L. Wenjing, P. Xianwen, M. Yongjiang and W. Yong

Anatomical characteristic of placenta and its relationship with calf birth weight in yak
T.K. Mohanty, M.R. Ansari and R.N. Pal

Effect of milking methods on early growth and development of Huandhu yak calves in Qinghai, P.R. China
X. Jingtao, Y. Rongzhen and Sh. Shengzhong

Dentition in yak
R.N. Pal, S. Patnaik and T.K. Mohanty

Body weight growth model of Datong yak in Qinghai
W. Minqiang, Zh. Huiling, L. Pingli, T. Yongqiang, L. Jiye and L. Zonglin

Growth patterns of F1 calves of × wild domestic yak
B. Amarsanaa, B. Erdenebaatar, V. Dagviikhorol and D. Badamdoji

Analysis of growth pattern and production function of yak around the Qinghai Lake, P.R. China
X. Bai, W. Jingzhong and Ch. Qi

Session VI: Disease and health service

Reindeer ((Rangifer tarandus) and yak (Bos (Poephagus) grunniens)): Disparate animal species—similar environment, management and parasite problems?
P.J. Waller

Drug susceptibility test of Escherichia coli isolates from healthy yak of Qinghai
T. Yun, L. Chengping and X. Luzhong

Serological survey on infectious diseases of a White yak herd in the Gansu Province
H.E. Geilhausen

Treatment of bovine mastitis with medicinal herbs and acupuncture
H. Songhua

Mastitis control in ruminants
K.P. Waller

A diagnosis study of brucellosis and Chlamydia infection in yak
M. Lizhong

Effect of Japanese Kampo medicines on in vitro preservation of bovine spermatozoa and in vitro fertilisation
N. Yumiko, Zh. Rong, X. Yongmei and F. Noboru

The role of community animal health workers in an efficient animal health management system
P.J. Horber

The role of community animal health workers in an efficient animal health management system
P.J. Horber

Test of enterotoxicity of Escherichia (E) coli isolated from yak
Z. Qunhui, Ch. Mingyong, Zh. Bing, S. Qinye and W. Jiemei

Session VII: Products and marketing

Beef production of three yak breeds in Tibet
J. Qiumei, B. Chong, D. Yongla, T. Degyi, D. Chyegi, Zh. Yongqing and L. Sang

Diversification in processing and marketing of yak milk based products
T.B. Thapa

Development of yak veal and related technology as a means of increasing overall yak productivity
M. Zhengchao, L. Jiye, H. Kai and Zh. Longquan

Composition, quality and consumption of yak milk in Mongolia
R. Indra and A. Magash

Protocol for the manufacture of high quality, nutritive bone marrow powder product from Tianzhu White yak
H. Ling

Development of yak products and their processing and marketing
K. Kachkynbaeva

The characteristics and problems of leather making with yak hide
Sh. Shuangxi

Processing and use of yak slaughter by-products
H. Jiang

Summaries and recommendation

Summaries and recommendation

Third International Congress on Yak

Programme of the Third International Congress on Yak

List of participants


Opening addresses and remarks

Brief introduction to agricultural and animal husbandry development in Tibetan Autonomous Region

Address on the opening dinner of the Third International Congress on Yak